History of Bangladesh

History

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Geography and Population

Bangladesh lies between 20″34′ and 26″38′ North Latitude and 88″01′ and 92″41′ East Longitude with a total landmass of 1,47,570 square kilometers (56,977 Sq. miles). Bangladesh is surrounded by India on the West, North and Northeast, Myanmar on the Southeast and the Bay of Bengal on the South. Bangladesh has a strategic location and acts as bridge between South Asia and Southeast Asia. It has a population of 147 million people. In other words, it is roughly the size of New York State with half the entire population of the United States crammed into this area.

Topography

Most of Bangladesh is at low elevations and is divided into five physical regions: (I) the Ganges Delta to the Southwest, (II) the Paradelta to the Northwest, (III) the East Central plains and the Sylhet Hills in the Northeast, and (IV) the Chittagong region in the Southeast. Bangladesh is the largest deltaic region in the world. The Ganges Delta is geologically the most recent compared with other deltas. Mangrove forests thrive in the lower delta, which is flooded by fresh tidal waters. The soil base is new alluvium. The Sundarbans to the Southwest is the largest mangrove forest in the world. The Paradelta, like the delta proper, is a plain but its elevations are higher at 100 to 300 feet above sea level. Its soils are varied – silt and sandy clays and old alluvium. It lies between the Ganges and the (Brahmaputra) Jamuna Rivers. The East Central plains, with the Meghna River almost at its centre, consists of plains and active floodplains in which the main rivers, including the Brahmaputra, have altered their channels in the past. At the centre of this plain lies Madhupur Forest, a former site for tiger hunting. To the Northeast is the Meghna depression, part of which is only 10 feet above sea level; during the rainy season it turns into a huge lake, covering most of its 7,250 square kilometer (2,800 square mile) basin. Bangladesh is a riverine country and is criss-crossed by innumerable rivers, rivulets and their tributaries.

Climate

Bangladesh has a tropical monsoon climate with heavy summer rain and high summer temperatures. Winters are dry and cool. South and Southwest winds dominate from mid-April to mid-October and bring enormous amounts of moisture from the Indian Ocean and the Bay of Bengal. 95% of the total rainfall, which averages about 80 inches (2,040 millimeters) occurs during that period. The temperatures range from an average of about 68 F (18C) in January to about 86 F (30C) in April.

Seasons

Bengali tradition divides the year into six seasons; Grishmo(summer), Barsha(rainy), Sarat(early autumn), Hemanta(late autumn), Sheet(winter) and Boshonto (spring). For practical purposes, however, four seasons are clearly distinguishable; Summer, Rainy, late Autumn (when harvesting takes place) and Winter. Rains begin in April accompanied by Norwester or ‘Kalbaishakhi’. It is then that farmers start tilling their land for early crop. With the onset of monsoon in the first week of June heavy downpour starts, and average temperature falls to low 80F. These heavy rains last for about two to three months causing floods and inundation of fields and riverbanks. The Winter is moderate while the Spring is mellow and pleasant.

Bio-diversity

Bangladesh enjoys a great bio-diversity in its flora and fauna. The flower “Shapla” (nympoea-nouchali) is the national emblem, Magpie Robin (Doel) is the national bird, while the Royal Bengal Tiger is the national animal of Bangladesh which abounds in the Sunderbans, recognized as a world heritage.

People

Building upon firm ethnological roots and an entrepreneurial spirit as well as innovative skill, the people of Bangladesh are creating a special niche for themselves on the global plank. Given the fascinating land with a variegated history and a rich cultural tapestry, the people are endowed with a native intellect, capacity for hard work and resilience. Bangladeshis are simple, friendly and hospitable in nature. With a 147 million population, Bangladesh ranks as the world’s 8th most populous country. It is also one of the most densely populated countries in the world. The staple food of the people is rice, which is generally eaten with fish curry and lentil. Most women in Bangladesh wear a “Sari”, and men “Lungi”. Bengalees descended from several racial and sub-racial groups entering South Asia over the past five thousand years. By and large, they are now a single homogenous race with one common language – Bangla. There are, however, several other small ethnic groups with their own languages/dialects and distinctive cultures. Birth rate in 2006 came down to 1.5% while the percentage of literacy rate is now over 60, the highest in South Asia after Sri Lanka. Life expectancy at birth is now over 62.4 according to 2005 Census.

Language

Bangla, the official language, is spoken by more than 99 percent of the population but English is also generally understood and spoken particularly in urban areas. Bangla is one of the most extensively spoken languages of the world. Bengali script is derived directly from Gupta Brahmi script having close affinity with Thai and Cambodian scripts. The origin of this script is generally traced to 10th century AD. Bengali is a rich language capable of expressing the finest nuances of thought and feeling, a language that continuously mirrors the ever-changing play of life. Bengalees passionately love their language. While under the neocolonial subjugation, the Bengalees on February 21, 1952 shed their blood for protecting and preserving their mother tongue from the encroachment of alien language. The day has been declared by UNESCO in 1999 as the International Mother Language Day to be observed all over the world in commemoration of the Bengali language movement. Bangla is rich in poetry, short story, novel, essay and drama. Two major Bangla poets are Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore (1863-1941), and Bangladesh’s national poet Kazi Nazrul Islam (1899-1976). The latter’s birth centenary was celebrated in 2000 with great acclaim.

Religion

Islam is the predominant religion with over 88% adherents. Hindus comprise about 10% of the population. The rest are Buddhists, Christians and animists. People are generally pious and keen in observing their respective religious rites and festivities with fervour. Bangladesh is a model of religious harmony and tolerance. Different religious communities and groups live in peace and the minorities are well represented in all tiers of society as well as in the government machinery.

Time

Standard time of Bangladesh is 6 hours ahead of GMT. Friday and Saturday are weekly government holidays while private offices and enterprises observe Friday as the weekly day-off and remain open on Saturday. Office hours are from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m.

The Constitution

In less than a year after Bangladesh’s victory in its War of Independence, the then Prime Minister, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman presented the nation with a Constitution which was secular in character and egalitarian in nature guaranteeing full fundamental rights to all citizens irrespective of religion, caste, creed, class and sex. In 1991, all the political parties in the opposition opted for a parliamentary system of governance in place of then existing presidential system. In 1996 the provision of holding general elections in the country under a non-party neutral caretaker government was incorporated in the Constitution. This was designed to safeguard the franchise of the people. The Constitution of Bangladesh provides for three organs – the Executive, the Legislature and the Judiciary – for ensuring accountability, transparency and checks and balances of the government. All the three organs function harmoniously.

The Executive Branch of the Government

Bangladesh switched to the parliamentary system of government in 1991. The President, elected by parliament, is the constitutional head of the Government and acts on the advice of the Prime Minister. At the initiative of the then Prime Minister, former Chief Justice of the Supreme Court Justice Shahabuddin Ahmed, held in high esteem as a neural non-party personality, was chosen as the President of the Republic. Justice Shahabuddin Ahmed was also the Acting President after the fall of the autocratic regime in December 1990 and had supervised the general elections in 1991.

The Prime Minister, under the provision of the Constitution, is the Head of the Government. The Prime Minister presides over the cabinet, which is collectively responsible to Parliament. The business of the national government is carried out by various ministries and divisions, which together constitute the nerve center of the country’s administration. Under these bodies lie several government agencies including departments, directorates, corporations and other statutory bodies for executing government policies and decisions.

Caretaker Government

A unique feature of the Constitution of Bangladesh is the provision of holding general elections under a neutral, non-party Caretaker Government. The concept of Caretaker Government was the choosing of the major political parties designed to secure people’s franchise so as to ensure peaceful transfer of power. It was adopted in the form of Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution. The amendment provides that the immediate Chief Justice would be the Head of the Caretaker Government. If such retired Chief Justice is not available or is not willing to hold office, then the person who among the retired Chief Justices retired just before the last retired Chief Justice will become the head of the Caretaker Government. If no retired Chief Justice is available or willing to hold the office, then the person, who among the retired judges of the Appellate Division retired last will head the Caretaker Government. If such person is not available, the person who retired as Appellate Division Judge before the last retired judge will be the head of the Caretaker Government. If no such person is available, the President shall, after consultation as far as practicable, with major political parties, appoint the Chief Adviser from among the citizens of Bangladesh who is qualified to be appointed as Adviser. The tenure of such a Caretaker Government will begin three months before every general election. Through this system the people of Bangladesh got back their lost right to vote freely and independently without the pressures of the reigning government.

The Legislature

According to Article 65(1) of the Constitution, all legislative powers of the Republic are vested in Parliament called the Jatiya Sangsad comprising three hundred members directly elected from territorial constituencies. In addition, there are thirty reserved seats for women who are elected by an electoral college of the elected members. The Jatiya Sangsad has a tenure of five years and has to sit every two months. An elaborate committee system has been developed and bills introduced in parliament are referred to the committees for scrutiny. Contrary to the earlier practice, the concerned Minister is no longer the head of the committee, rather a Member of the Parliament heads a committee. The Prime Minister’s question hour has been introduced which is televised live and the entire proceedings of the Parliament are directly relayed to provide the people an opportunity to form their own opinion without depending on any intermediary. The Prime Minister also appears before radio and television to answer questions from audiences and viewers on a wide range of subjects and on issues agitating the minds of the people. An institute of Parliamentary Practice has been set up to provide assistance to Members of Parliament in the discharge of their duties and responsibilities.

The Judiciaty

The Government has been working for separation of the judiciary from the executive with a view to ensuring full independence of the judiciary. Under the present Government headed by Prime Minister Khaleda Zia, the country’s judiciary enjoys full independence. The Supreme Court stands at the apex of the country’s judiciary and acts as the guardian of the Constitution. It has two divisions – the Appellate Division and the High Court Division. The legal decisions of the Supreme Court are binding on all other courts. The judges of both the divisions of the Supreme Court are appointed by the president. There are subordinate courts of district and session judges which deal with civil and criminal suits. The government believes in full freedom of judiciary. Hence the judiciary discharges its duty and constitutional obligations freely and without any let or hindrance.

A three-year project called “Judicial and Legal Capacity Building” with the objective of improvement of socio-economic condition, reforms of legal system, modernization and development of physical infrastructure of courts has been undertaken. The Government has constituted Legal Aid Committees, headed by District Judges in 61 districts, to provide legal assistance to the poor and destitute litigants. These district level committees have been working under the National Legal Aid Committee. The Government is committed to protect human rights. A Judicial Administration Training Institute has been formed to enhance the professional skill and standard of judicial personnel. A permanent Law Commission headed by a retired Chief Justice of Supreme Court has been constituted to up-date laws by suggesting necessary reforms. The Commission has already undertaken measures to recommend some new laws and re-frame some old ones. Considering the increasing number of pending cases in courts the Government has decided to set up village courts for settling litigation through negotiation called Alternative Dispute Resolution(ADR). The decision of setting up of village courts in line with local tradition is a very timely step. The Public Safety Act (PSA) has been framed for taking prompt punitive action against serious offenders of public peace and security as well as for maintaining general law and order. Special Courts have been set up for the trial of persons engaged in terrorist activities. There are also some special courts like Family Law Courts, Special Tribunals and commercial and financial courts to deal with specific cases.

Local Government

The Parliament has passed the Village Council Bill and District Council Bill. Through necessary amendment to the Union Council Act, for every three wards one seat has been kept reserved for women. Besides the reserved seats, women are also eligible for contesting in the general seats. This has opened up new avenues and opportunities for women’s empowerment and flourishing women’s leadership at the grass-roots level. Along with initiating appropriate reforms, the local Government bodies have also been strengthened through various other measures.

Country Profile

Official Name : The People’s Republic of Bangladesh

Capital : Dhaka : Area-1416 Sq.Km. Population 9.9 million in 2001

Hon’ble President : H.E. Mr. Md. Zillur Rahman

Hon’ble Prime Minister of the government of Bangladesh: H.E. Sheikh Hasina

Geographical Location : Between 23�.34′ and 26�.38′ north latitude and between 88�.41′ and 92�.41′
east longitude.

Area : 1,47,570 sq.km. Territorial Waters 22.22 km. Economic Zome-Upto
370.40 km. in the high seas, measured from the base line.

Boundary North: India
West : India
East : India and and Mayanmar
South: Bay of Bengal

Religion (Census 1991) : Islam (88.3%), Hinduism (10.5%), Buddhism (0.6%) and Christianity(0.3%)

Unit of Currency : Taka

Time : GMT+6.00 hours.

Administrative Units :

Division: 6;  Zila: 64;  Thana: 507;  Union: 4484;  Village: 87319
Major Cities : Dhaka, Chittagong. Khulna, Rajshahi, Mymensing, Comilla, Barisal,
Sylhet.

Climate : Average Winter temp (Max 29� C Min 11� C ).
Average Summer temp (Max 40� C Min 21� C)

Monsoon Rainfall : Lowest 340mm. Highest 964 mm.

Humidity : Highest 99% Lowest 36 %

Main Seasons : Winter (November � February ), Summer (May �June), Monsoon
(July � October)

Language : Bengali but English is widely used.

Principal River : Padma, Meghna, Jamuna, Bhahmaputra, Teesta, Surma and Karnaphuli in
all 700 rivers including tributaries and branches.

Principal Minerals : Natural Gas, Lignite Coal, Limestones, Ceramic, Clay and Glass Sand.

Principal Crops : Rice, Jackfruit, Jute, Tobacco, Sugarcane, Pulses, Oilseeds, Spices,
Potatoes, Vegetables, Bananas, Mangoes, Coconut, Tea and Wheat.

Principal Industries : Garments, Jute, Cotton, Textile, Tea, Paper, Newsprint, Cement, Fertilizer, Sugar, Engineering, Electric cables , Leather, Fish.

Principal Exports : Readymade garments, Jute and Jute products, Tea, Leather and
Frozen food.
Sea Ports : Chittagong and Mongla.

Airports : Dhaka, Chittagong , Jessore, Rajshahi, Iswardi, Sylhet, Cox’s Bazar,
Syedpur and Barisal .

Radio Station : Dhaka, Chittagong, Khulna, Rajshahi, Rangpur, Sylhet, Comilla,Jessore,Bogra, Cox’s Bazar, Barisal,Rangamati and Thakurgaon .

Television Station : Dhaka, Natore, Chittagong, Brahamanbaria ,Patuakhali,Jhenaidah, Thakurgaon, Rajshahi,Satkhira,Rangamati,Cox’s Bazar, Noakhali, Sylhet,Mymenshing,Khulna and Rangpur

Satellite Station : Betbunia ( Chittagong) and Talibabad (Dhaka) for international
telecommunication.

Education(1999 based) : Universities: 32; Medical Collage: 24; Bangladesh Institute of Technology: 4; Colleges 2288; Polytechnic Institutes 21; Secondary School 14069; Primary School 65610

Electricity :220 Volts A.C. in all cities and towns.

Tourist Season :October to March

Main Tourist Attractions. : Colourful tribal life of Hill Tracts, world’s longest sea beach at Cox’s Bazar, centuries old historical sites at Dhaka , Paharpur, Mainamati, Mohastangar, Sundarban the home of the Royal Bengal Tiger, largest tea garden, reverine life, ect.

Wearing Apparel :Tropical in Summer and Light woolen in Winter.

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